Falling into fall

All too soon the clocks will go back by an hour, and the evenings will feel much longer.  This time of year, nature paints with a rich palette of wonderful colours.  Summer was glorious and bountiful, but towards the end it became a little parched, and somewhat monochrome.  Now autumn is exploding in a riot of colours!  Balm to the heart!!

Have a look at this dahlia:


The colour variations in the grapevine leaves are endless:

The pomegranates are really starting to show off:



How about some of these luscious persimmons?



Or perhaps you are ready for a pumpkin?


This red warty thing has been growing in my garden for some time now, and it will be harvested very soon.  A friend in the US sent me the seeds last year, and I just love the colour and texture of the skin;  the seed packet promises that it will make good eating too!

The rose hips are blazing away brilliantly red.


Some parts of my garden really come into their own during fall.  This salvia just seems to explode at the end of each summer.


Some leaves turn a bright sulphur yellow colour

and some go flaming red:

autumn2000 3

Autumn is really one of the best times to visit the area.  And of course this time of year is also fantastic for wild mushrooms, but that will be a story for another time…

Walking with llamas

I’m up for pretty much anything, so when a friend suggested we go walking with llamas, I agreed right away.  The llamas live in the hamlet of Pez, near Pardailhan, and are owned by Murielle Marcle and Christian Tinel.  Murielle and Christian run Les Lamas du Pardailhan. Murielle trained in animal-assisted therapy, and the farm regularly hosts children from care homes in the area.  She also offers guided visits of the farm, as well as the walks with the llamas, which I had come for.

In the paddock five llamas were waiting for our visit:  Machuca, Chachani, and Hiskalda were female adults; their daughters Lima and Quinoa were both born in May 2013.


Before we got going, Murielle gave us some facts about llamas.  Llamas are part of the family of camelids, and are related to camels and alpacas.  They are very social animals and only thrive as part of a herd.  Llamas are also very quiet animals, they don’t make noises like any of the other four-legged farm animals.  Llamas have a reputation for spitting, however they tend to spit only at each other, not at humans.  They are entirely vegetarian, and feed on grasses and leaves.  You’ll be able to read up on a whole lot more llama facts in this Wikipedia article.


Llama wool is very soft and fine, but not as highly prized as alpaca.  Murielle’s llamas are woolly lamas, and they have to be shorn from time to time, to stop them from getting too hot during the summer.  That said, the hair along the neck is usually left long.  The wool contains no lanolin, and the llamas have no noticeable smell.


Before we started off, Murielle coaxed four of the llamas into the corral, a small enclosure on one side of the paddock, where each llama had a halter put on.  This was followed by some brushing, so that we would get to know the llamas close up :) !


Once we had done the grooming and getting-to-know-you bit, we set off on our walk.  Unfortunately one of the llamas had to stay behind, and she was not very happy on her own. :(


Our walk took us along leafy lanes, with very frequent stops – the llamas found all sorts of delicious leaves and grasses growing along the way.  The leaves of chestnut trees were particularly prized!!


On the return we came across a beautiful meadow, and that must have been heaven for our four-legged friends. :)



All too soon we were back at the paddock, and once we’d said our goodbyes to the llamas they went for a run around their paddock.  As we walked back to the farmhouse, I couldn’t resist taking a picture of Murielle’s vegetable garden.


If you would like to book a walk with Murielle and the llamas, please contact her via her website http://www.lamas34.com or by telephone on +33 467 236 118.  There must be a minimum of three persons for each walk, and the walks cost 10 EUR per hour/person.

A feast of colour

On a recent trip to Narbonne I made two discoveries, both prompted by a friend who had recently told me about them.  The first was a restaurant I had never before visited:  L’Ecailler Gourmet, which is just behind the law courts in Narbonne.
It is a restaurant which specialises in fish, and there is literally nothing else on the menu.  If you don’t like fish and shellfish, don’t go there!!  On the other hand, if you enjoy fish, you’ll be in heaven there!  I went on a Saturday lunchtime, when the prix-fixe menus are not in operation (on weekdays the lunchtime menus are 16 and 18 Euro). Out in front there is a very nice courtyard dining area, with sun sails and umbrellas, and very comfortable outdoor furniture. Inside looked good too;  I just have to tell you about the WC – it’s got the perfect decor, totally in tune with the theme of the restaurant.  I won’t tell you any more, you’ll have to go and see for yourself :) !  L’Ecailler Gourmet also has a shop, where you can buy fresh fish and shellfish.

For starters, my dining companion and I ordered a selection of four different Tapas:  marinated smoked herring, octopus, sesame prawns, and marinated anchovies.


I am not sure which was the most delicious of the four – I wasn’t sure at the time and I can’t make up my mind now.  The flavour of the herring was sublime and the fish beautifully tender.  The anchovies were perfect, nicely spiced without being too acid.  The prawns were juicy with a lovely sesame flavour.  And the octopus?  Firm, but without being rubbery, as octopus can so often be, and delicately flavoured with chives and peppers.

For the main course my dining companion had chosen the Parillade, a combo of three different fish fillets, plus scallops and king prawns, and I had ordered a Brochette de Saumon, Lotte et Gambas, in other words salmon, monk fish and king prawns on a skewer.  Before it was cooked, the fish was presented at the table – I don’t remember that ever happening before in a restaurant!  The first picture shows the Parillade, and the ingredients for my Brochette are shown on the other half of the plate.  Having eaten all the tapas I was not sure I would be able to manage all the fish, but I figured that it would shrink somewhat during cooking.

When the fish reappeared, this time beautifully cooked and plated, it still looked just as big, AND there were vegetables on the plate too!!

We both managed just fine – the fish was perfectly cooked, juicy and tender!  Monk fish can be a bit tricky to prepare.  It can have a strange kind of texture, which I don’t find all that pleasant, but in this case it was just a pleasure to eat.  Cooking fish is all about timing, and the chefs at L’Ecailler Gourmet have it down to a fine art.

After all that gorgeous fish, I felt that dessert was out of the question, but then came the blackboard with the choices:


I think you’ll agree that the choices were just too tempting :)!!  I opted for the millefeuille with fresh mango and Chantilly cream – pure delight – whilst my dining companion ordered the tartar of strawberries with black olives and basil.  The latter was a revelation – the flavour of the strawberries was very much enhanced by the basil, and the olives added a nice kick to it.

So all in all a wonderful lunch, and definitely a restaurant to recommend.  If you want to visit, please call ahead to make a reservation, as it can get very busy.


After this amount of food we definitely needed a walk, so we decided to spend some time exploring Narbonne.  Here’s where my friend’s second tip came in handy:  Narbonne is hosting the 2nd International Biennale of Watercolour during October.  The exhibitions are spread over eight different locations in the town centre.  We started with the exhibit of pictures by Henri Zuber in the hemispherical chamber at the bottom of the keep, part of the archbishop’s palace (now the town hall) on Place de l’Hotel de Ville. The room is amazing (you can climb to the top of the keep for a great view over the town), and the exhibition was delightful.  The acoustics of the room are also amazing – you can clearly hear what people across the other side of the room are whispering about!!

The next stop was in the Salle des Consuls, also in the archbishop’s palace.  This is an impressive hall with a timber beamed ceiling, where the town nobles met to decide on the running of Narbonne.  The pictures on show here were the finalists of the worldwide competition organised by the international magazine, The Art of Watercolour.

There were several pictures which caught my eye, and on finding out that all the works on display were for sale, I asked the price for this picture:


It is called Smoking old man, and painted by Weixing Guan.  The young man at the desk had to make a phone call, as he did not have a price list.  He was visibly embarrassed when he told me that the picture was valued at $50,000 – just like me to go for one of the most expensive pictures in the whole show!! :D .

We went on to the next venue, the Chapelle des Penitents Bleus, the former chapel of one of the poor orders.  Looking at some of the decorations in the chapel I wonder…

The pictures here were by a group of painters who had been specially invited to the Biennale.  Among the pictures on show was the one which was used for the posters of this year’s exhibition, a very atmospheric piece by Uruguayan artist Alvaro Castagnet

Our next stop was at La Poudriere, a former gunpowder store!  Painters selected by the organising committee were showing their pictures here.

On to our final stop that day:  the Ancienne Chapelle des Jacobins – the old chapel of the former Jacobin monastery.  The chapel is an incredibly lofty space, with some amazing stonework!

The pictures by the Belgian painter Martine Vanparijs caught my eye, and they were very much more affordable than the painting which had so attracted me earlier in the afternoon. You could probably buy every single picture in the Ancienne Chapelle des Jacobins for the price of that one!


The Biennale runs until October 26, 2014 and most of the venues are open every day.  If you are in the area, do go and have a look – I am sure you will enjoy the visit!

How sweet it is …

Some of you will be thinking of the song by the same name by James Taylor – at least I hope some of you will!!  (If you don’t know the song, you can listen to it here.)  I know that once you know the subject of this week’s blog, some of you will be thinking, “But they don’t love me”!

So here it is – this week’s post is about sweet onions :)!  More precisely about the sweet onions grown in the little village of Citou, near Caunes Minervois.  I know that some people do not do well with onions – so my apologies if you happen to find that onions do not love you!


Sweet onions are grown in many parts of the Languedoc, and the onions of each locality have their own character, a result of what the French call terroir.  The village of Citou celebrates the sweet onion each year with a fete in early September.  To reach the village means driving along a sinuous road, climbing high into the foothills of the Montagne Noire.  Knowing the road and the parking situation in Citou (there isn’t much), I decided to take the free shuttle bus, which left from outside the cooperative winery in Caunes Minervois.

After a scenic journey, I arrived just in time for the opening of the fete – well, that was what the plan had been.  The assembled dignitaries were waiting for someone to arrive, and when that person finally arrived, the cordless microphone stopped working :D.  There then ensued a bit of a rush to find new batteries, and when it became clear that the microphone was not going to work after all, the speeches were given without amplification, and everyone stood a little closer to the speaker!  While all this was going on, the local band entertained the waiting crowd – it was charming – they were so bad it was great!!  After the pictures there is a brief video of the band for you (e-mail subscribers, you’ll have to visit the site to watch the video).


The main part of the fete was a market of about 30 stands, with a variety of local produce.  Top of the list were the locally grown onions and apples.

The Oustal de Citou restaurant had tables set up outside, in addition to their regular inside tables, for a special meal.  The menu looked very tempting, but unfortunately all the places were already reserved.

There was, however, plenty of food available at the stands for a picnic lunch:  goats cheese, breads of various kinds, tarts, AND ice cream!  For some reason I only have pictures of the ice cream :) – I wonder why?

After lunch I took a little stroll to explore the village.  It is not very large, but holds a few interesting things:

The lavoir was built to commemorate the revolution, and dedicated in 1889.  I have never seen such an ornate spout!

High above the village sit the ruins of the castle – it was a hot day and the climb just a little too arduous, but I made it close enough tot take the above picture!



Numerous fountains are found throughout the village, all running continuously.  There is certainly no shortage of water.

The vegetable gardens were a joy to behold – all neat and orderly!


The village church held some beautiful pieces of marble – though I’m not sure what the significance of the lion’s foot is in connection with an altar.  Any ideas, anyone?

On the way back to the shuttle bus stop, I had a chat with Mr Fabre, who is one of the onion and apple growers in Citou.  He told me that the onion seeds are sown into seed trays in February, and when they are the size of a pencil the seedlings are trimmed and re-planted, generally in May.  Regular watering is required during the growing season, until about two weeks before the onions are due to be harvested.  The period without water allows the onions to consolidate, and is important for the keeping qualities.  The onions are then pulled up and dried, before being trimmed and prepared for sale.



I brought some onions back to make a Pissaladiere, a kind of onion pizza originally from Nice.  I looked through several recipe books until I found one which used pie crust, rather than the bread dough most other books specified.  Since I’m a lazy cook – and the pie crust suited my schedule much better than the bread dough – I decided to give that a try.  I made my pastry with 150 g of flour, a pinch of salt, and 3 tbsp each of butter and duck fat.  You could use lard instead.  I rubbed the fat into the flour until it resembled coarse breadcrumbs, then added 3 tbsp water until the mixture held together.  I chilled the pastry, wrapped up in tinfoil, in the fridge, overnight.

I also prepared the onion topping that same evening.  Four very large, sweet onions (about 800 g), peeled and sliced, and cooked very slowly with a generous amount of olive oil – about 60 ml (4 tbsp).  The cooking time is approximately 30 minutes.  I cooked the onions, with a pinch of salt, in a deep non-stick frying pan, with the lid on for the first 15 minutes.  Regular stirring is required.  By the end of the cooking time the onions will be very soft and golden.  I left the onions to cool and stored them in the fridge overnight, along with the pastry.


The following day I rolled the pastry out thinly to line a large round baking dish.  Since the filling is not very runny you don’t need much of a rim.  The onion puree is spread on the pastry and then you add anchovy fillets in a lattice pattern.  I cut my anchovy fillets in half lengthwise.  I find that otherwise you need too many anchovies, and they will overpower the onions.  Each diamond is garnished with a black olive, and the whole is baked at 220 Celsius for 20 minutes.  Serve warm with a salad of mixed leaves, and a few cherry tomatoes.  If you enjoy onions and anchovies, this could be absolute heaven for you!

Feel free to try this tart with the traditional bread/pizza dough, and vary the garnishing.  I’ve seen tomatoes and even cheese added to the topping.  Bon appetit!!




Romans and ruins

The Journees du Patrimoine took place for the 31st time in France this past weekend.  The event was started in 1984 by the then French minister for culture, Jack Lang.  The aim was to allow the French public to visit their national heritage monuments and buildings, which were usually closed to the public or rarely visited.  Following the success of the French initiative, several European countries started their own “heritage weekends” in 1985, and in 1991 the European Union officially instituted the European Heritage Days, to be held on the third weekend of September each year.

So it was that I found myself in Narbonne last Sunday afternoon, to visit the Clos de la Lombarde excavation site.


Narbonne was founded in 118 BC and became the capital of Roman Gaul.  The museums in Narbonne have an important collection of finds from the Roman period of the town,  and I wanted to see where some of these pieces had come from.  The excavation site is right in Narbonne, next to the cemetery, and it had miraculously survived without being built over until our times.  In 1973 the treasury decided to build a tax office on the site, and initial surveys were carried out by local archaeologists.  What they found was spectacular, and in 1974 excavations started.  In the intervening years, the site has been pretty much excavated all over.



Sunday afternoon was hot and humid, but that did not deter any of the many visitors.  When I arrived at the site I felt a little disappointed – it looked just like a lot of dust and rubble at first glance.  BUT there were guided visits, and after a brief wait, during which I tried my hand at assembling a piece of fresco, we were off with our guide.  A word on the fresco puzzle – they were not pieces of real Roman wall paintings, but recreated with plasterboard (sheetrock) and paint.

Our guide was incredibly knowledgeable – she had been part of the excavation team for a long time, and knew the history of the site as well as anybody.  What we had in front of us were the remains of a block of houses, with roads visible on three sides. Our guide was wonderful at bringing life to the dust and rubble all around us.  Here is a map:


The green areas are the roads, with the two running north/south on the map being major roads, with a well-made surface.  The roads at a right angle were narrower and not as much used.  The first house we looked at is called Maison a Portiques, the house of the porches, so-called because it had a porch running along two sides of it.  The one along the main road was wide enough for pedestrians to walk under and perhaps for merchants to set up stalls.  The Maison a Portiques dates from the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.  In the picture below you are looking along the road, and you’d be standing under the roof of the porch.  The square block would have been the base for one of the columns holding up the roof of the porch.  The chains mark out the wall of the house, and on the left of the picture they mark out the edge of the road.


The door on the main street led into a spacious hallway, and beyond the hallway was the interior garden of the house.


The members of the association Les Amis du Clos de la Lombarde have tried to recreate some feel of the garden.  Right ahead is the well – the stone surround is cut from one single piece of rock.  Behind it is a basin, which was filled with water on the previous day.  The floor of the basin is covered in opus spicatum, flat bricks laid on their sides in a herringbone pattern.  The Romans used a lime mortar mixed with crushed brick to create a watertight finish.  2000 years later it is still watertight – isn’t that astonishing??

Behind the round basin was a square basin.  Unfortunately part of that basin had been destroyed when an early Christian basilica had been built in the 4th century AD.  You can see the the herringbone pattern brickwork and the slightly pink render on the walls of the basin.  In the top right hand corner is a lead plate, which allowed the basin to be drained.


All around the edge of the garden was a channel which could be flooded, perhaps to cool the air, or to water the plants?  The house was connected to “mains” water by a lead pipe – and in those days not every house had that convenience.  If you look very careful at the picture with the channel you can just about make out a raised round area which would have been where a column would have stood.

Some of the rooms still had their original floors in place, although to see the beautiful mosaic floors you’ll have to visit the archaeological museum in Narbonne, where they are preserved.

Part-way through our visit we had a little interruption.   A group of local amateur actors had prepared a sketch after a story by Seneca.  Lucilius, the owner of the house of the porches, had invited Marcus Clodius, his neighbour, and Sagaristio, a friend, for a house-warming party.  Unfortunately the construction works were running late (some things never change :) ).  The triclinium, the dining room, was not yet finished, so Lucilius offered his friends some of his fine wines.  Lemniselenis, the wife of Marcus Clodius, had not been invited, but told us bits of the story from the sidelines.  There was a little incident with one of the servants, which required some audience participation :)!  All of the dialogue was spoken in Latin, but I confess that I did not remember very much from my school days!!


I took a video of some of it for you – unfortunately my camera decided to stop halfway through, so you will have to imagine Lemniselenis’ cook, Paulus Bocus, coming past the house and tempting the hungry visitors with this menu:

Pepones et Melones (melon and watermelon with pepper)
Ostreae (oysters)
Perna (pork roasted in a crust, with figs)
Pulum frontonianum (chicken in a pot)
Patina ex lacte (dessert with milk baked in the oven – flan?)
Patina de piris (pears cooked with honey and spices)
Dulcia domestica (dates stuffed with pine nuts and honey)
Mustea et panis mellitus (pancakes and honeyed bread)

I guess we’d have all gone over to Marcus Clodius’ house for that feast!  Come to think of it, perhaps that’s a menu I could cook with my friends at one of our cookery get-togethers?  Here’s the video (e-mail subscribers please visit the WordPress site to see the video):

After that lovely diversion we continued our visit.  Here’s an interesting item, which is still in its original position:




It is located under what could have been stairs up to a first floor.  Its use?  A kind of emergency toilet!  The Roman houses did not have their own toilets – if you had to go, you went to the neighbourhood therme, the baths, to relieve yourself.  This emergency toilet was or is still linked to the drain which is in the road outside the house.

At some point in the 3rd century AD the houses were abandoned, for reasons unknown.  It is supposed that, because of unrest and the threat of invasion, the inhabitants moved to safer quarters inside the town. Bit by bit the houses fell apart, and lucky for us, they were not pillaged too badly at the time.  A lot of the plaster murals fell to the floor, and the archaeologists were able to piece some of them together.  The reconstituted frescoes are on display in the archaeological museum in Narbonne, along with the mosaic floors.  Here is our guide, holding up illustrations of some of the murals:

To give you an idea of size, the Maison a Portiques occupies 975 square metres (8775 square feet).  It must have been a large house, even in its day.  The adjoining house on the block is called Maison III, and is slightly smaller;  it “only” occupies 700 square metres (6300 square feet)!  Maison III is known the way it was in the 2nd century AD. Fashions had changed, and the garden of this property was surrounded by the house in a U-shape.  The basin in the garden was entirely lined with white marble. And amazingly, this basin also still holds the water!




Maison III also held a real puzzle for the archaeologists!  In one of the rooms the floor was badly cracked and subsiding.  When they probed underneath, they found that something had been filled in.  And when that something had been fully excavated, it appeared to have been a giant fish tank – a living larder.  This pool could be filled by a lead pipe from the well, and there was also a drain to the street.  On one side there were steps into the water, so the fish could be caught easily.  The holes at the bottom are the mouths of amphorae.  Perhaps they were there to allow smaller fish to shelter from larger predatory fish?


Here is another picture of the garden of Maison III, along with a model reconstitution, showing what the house might have looked like:

Beyond Maison III lay the neighbourhood baths.  Our guide explained that a large part of the baths were below the cemetery next door, but for obvious reasons they had not been given permission to explore there :(.  Since the cemetery was first built it has been well known that the land had previously been occupied – several of the tombs have mosaic floors…

The final part of our guided visit covered the early Christian basilica, which was built towards the end of the 4th century AD.  Some of the cut stones from the earlier constructions were reclaimed for the building of the basilica, which was built over the remains of the Roman houses.

I think I’ll leave you here – there’s so much to discover, so much to see, so much historical context!  It would be beyond the scope of this blog to give you much more information – I leave that to the experts, who will be only too happy to show you everything there is to see at Clos de la Lombarde, when you visit yourself!


Food and wine

A friend recently told me of a cookery programme she had watched on UK television.  She was intrigued by a recipe for a flan made with Muscat de Saint-Jean-de-Minervois wine, and she was very keen to try it out.

We made a date for us to cook this together, and I watched the video, to see what it was all about.  The recipe comes from Hairy Bikers’ Bakeation (pronounced like vacation?), and was first shown on Television on April 24, 2014.  The show featured recipes for an apricot tarte tatin, brioche sausage rolls, praline brioche, and the flan de Saint-Jean-de-Minervois.  Out of those recipes, I will definitely try the apricot tarte tatin, next year when apricots are in season again.  I will include the video of the flan at the end of this post, and I’ll get to our flan experiment in a moment, but first a little about the Muscat de Saint-Jean-de-Minervois wine.

As its name implies, the wine is made from muscat grapes.  The Muscat de Saint-Jean-de-Minervois is produced in a small area around the little village of Saint-Jean-de-Minervois, which is located 12 km south-west of Saint Chinian.  The vineyards are on a limestone plateau at an altitude of 220 to 270 metres.  The grapes used in the production are a variety called petit grain, and indeed the individual grapes are very small.  As you approach the village, you’ll notice the vineyards where the plants seem to rise from a white soil.  The white colour comes from limestone rocks, bleached by the sun.  It is one of the many aspects of the “terroir” for this wine.


Harvest of the muscat grapes usually takes place during the first half of September, and I was very lucky to catch some of it.  The vineyards above had already been harvested, so there were no grapes left.  But just past the cooperative winery in Saint-Jean I spotted a tractor and several people in a vineyard.


All of the picking of the muscat grapes is done by hand.  I imagine that the grapes are too delicate and small to be picked by machine, although an engineer could probably find a solution if that is the problem.  Still, I like the fact that it is all hand-picked!


The view of the trailer full of grapes was delicious, and the smell….  I leave you to imagine that :)!  The grapes were perfection, with tiny little spots of brown, typical for this grape variety.


The lady in charge of the vineyard insisted that I take some grapes with me.  She fetched some secateurs, and proceeded to look for some choice bunches of grapes.  The very small, shrivelled up grapes were the ones I enjoyed best.  They tasted like sun-dried raisins, only better!

Next I went to the cooperative winery, where I quizzed the lady behind the counter.  The Cave Cooperative produces three different kinds of muscat wine. The Cuvee Petit Grain is the entry level muscat, with a nose of ripe fruit (apricot jam) and lime flowers, and a honey like finish. This wine is good with grilled chestnuts, blue cheese and apple tart.


Next up is the Cuvee Selection, blended from the best batches of muscat of any one year.  The colour of this wine is somewhat paler than that of the Cuvee Petit Grain, and it has a strong nose of fresh fruit (mango and litchi) and thyme flowers, with an aftertaste reminiscent of fresh figs.  Just so you don’t think I’m making this up, the information comes from the official tasting notes :)!  This wine goes well with foie gras, melon, strawberry soup, and braised turnips from Pardailhan.


The top-notch muscat is called Eclat Blanc, and of the three is the one I like best.  It has an incredibly pale colour, and a nose of lime flower, acacia, citronella and clementine.  There is a wonderful balance of sweet and acid, and it has great freshness and finesse.  Apparently you can drink this wine with your whole meal.  I don’t think I would though, as at 15% alcohol it is rather strong.


The reason the muscat wines are so strong lies in their vinification.  The fermentation of the wines is stopped at a certain point by adding alcohol, which preserves some of the sugar present in the grape juice.  If the grapes are harvested a little earlier, and the wine is left to ferment naturally, you end up with a Muscat Sec, a dry muscat wine, which has the wonderful floral notes on the nose, but none of the sweetness when you drink it.  The cooperative winery produces a number of other wines apart from muscat, including a sparkling wine made with muscat sec, and red and rose wines.  The picture on the left shows a selection of bottles of muscat from the winery through the years, and the display in the picture on the right shows all wines currently for sale.

By now you’re probably wondering if we will ever get to the flan!  Yes, we will – we’re starting right now!!  The ingredients are simple:  milk, eggs, sugar, muscat, lavender honey, and orange zest.



The muscat we used came from Domaine Sacre Coeur in Assignan – there are a number of independent producers of Muscat de Saint-Jean-de-Minervois, in addition to the cooperative winery.  None of the preparation of the flan is very complicated.  You will find the entire recipe here.  Having watched the video and read the recipe, I’m relieved to see that they do not specify a non-stick pan for making the caramel in the recipe.  To my mind using a non-stick pan when cooking sugar is a total no-no – the temperature rises far too high, potentially damaging the non-stick finish, and releasing who-knows-what in the process.

First of all we made the caramel – in a heavy stainless steel pan.  The trick with caramel is to keep your nerves: it has to be a good colour, since it won’t get any darker during the cooking process which follows.  At the same time, it will continue to cook somewhat, once you have poured it into the tin, so you have to catch it at the right moment.  Here’s what mine looked like:



Immediately after I took the picture I poured the caramel into the waiting brioche tin, and swirled it around.  The tin did get quite hot, so oven gloves or a cloth to hold the tin with are a very good idea.  And don’t get any caramel on your hands!


At the same time as the sugar was cooking, we heated the milk and infused it with the orange zest and the lavender honey:


And when the caramel was cooling in the tin and the milk sufficiently infused, we cracked the eggs into a bowl, beat them well with the muscat wine, strained the infused (and slightly cooled) milk onto the beaten eggs, and then poured all of it into the prepared brioche tin.

The tin was placed inside a cast iron casserole, and boiling water poured in to a height of two thirds up the side of the flan tin.  The flan required five minutes more cooking time than the recipe indicated, and it was covered with tinfoil part way through the cooking.


A couple of days later I had dinner with my friends, and we had the flan for dessert.  Un-moulding it was a little nerve-wracking – would it come out OK and in one piece??



The caramel showing around the tin is a good sign – it means that the flan has released.


But will it be all in one piece and looking pretty??  Find out:


Yes!!!  We did it :)  And I think it looks even prettier than the flan on the TV show, but then I am biased!!  The texture was lovely and silky, the taste was good, but I could not taste the muscat, and I felt that it could have been a little sweeter.  All in all it is a great dessert, and very easy to prepare once you have mastered the caramel.

I took a piece of flan home with me, since there was too much for the three of us to eat at one meal.  I ate it a couple of days later, and felt that the flavour had improved.  If you are tempted to make this, do plan ahead and leave it to sit in the fridge for a few days, I would say up to four days is good.  I will certainly make it again!

And here is the video (e-mail subscribers, please visit the blog site to watch the video):

Spinning a yarn

I may have mentioned before that the production of fabrics played a very important part in the local economy in days gone by.  In Saint-Chinian, fabric production ceased more or less after the devastating flood of 1873, but further north the textile industry continued to flourish until the middle of the 20th century.  Labastide Rouairoux celebrates its textile heritage each year on August 15 with the Fete du Fil.  At the height of the textile industry, 50% of the town’s 6000 inhabitants were employed in the various mills and associated trades.  Today, only one mill is still in operation, and the population of the town has dropped to around 1500 persons.

The town’s textile heritage has been preserved in the local museum, the Musee departemental du Textile, where the history of the town is shown through the manufacturing processes, as well as its association with some of the biggest names in Haute Couture. The museum is appropriately located in a former factory building, and on the occasion of the Fete du Fil the entrance was free!  To access the museum one has to cross the all-important river, and on the bridge I was greeted by two very colourful animals – projects from schools in the local area:

The textile industry established itself for a number of reasons in the area, the main being that there was the river (providing water for power, and for processing the the fabrics), and the second that the raw material, i.e. wool, was close at hand in the form of sheep.  This was one of the reasons for the school project – many of the schools in the local area had created their interpretation of a sheep – here’s a selection of some more them that I found dotted around the museum:

The ground floor of the museum is taken up with heavy machinery, such as the looms and other machines used to transform the raw materials into fabrics.  The loom below is a traditional wooden loom, and to the left of it is a frame for creating the warp. Neither would have been used in recent times for the industrial production of fabrics.


There are numerous exhibits on this floor, all of them fascinating to me – I could have spent hours poring over them all.


A number of volunteers were on hand to demonstrate some of the machines.  The carding machine, which prepared the fibers for spinning, was fascinating!  Raw wool of two different colours went in at one end, and was turned into “pre-thread” at the other end, ready for the spinning machine.

The disks of “pre-thread” were the put on the spinning machine, where they were turned into yarn, at an incredibly high speed :)!






The same spinning machine was also used to make fancy yarns, by twisting together two or more strands of different threads at different tensions.  The variety of what was produced in Labastide at one time, seems endless.

Next to the spinning machine was another machine, which wound the threads onto the standard cardboard cones, which are still used in the textile industry today.


The warping frames progressed from the simple wooden frame you saw next to the loom in the earlier picture, to enormous machines capable of creating the warp for a piece of cloth 600 metres long!

The white threads ended up on a loom which produced a fancy fabric – several different types of yarn are used in both the warp and the weft.

The coloured threads were used to produce a lovely striped fabric, on a loom which had come all the way from the US!

The machine in the picture below was used for quality inspection of the woven fabric – bright lights were used to show up any irregularities in the fabric.




Winding the thread onto the bobbins, so that it could be used on the looms, was also done by an ingenious machine. The drums at the top would hold empty bobbins, which would be automatically dropped down, filled up and ejected!

The room next door showed a variety of finishing processes, such as dyeing, felting, brushing, shearing, and I’m sure there were some I have forgotten.

On the first floor was an exhibition of what all the thread and cloth could be turned into.  There were rows upon rows of fabric swatches, produced for the likes of Chanel, Courrege and Dior, at the forefront of Haute Couture.

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Some of the yarns were turned into knitwear, by famous designers such as Sonia Rykiel:


And some of the fabrics became uniforms…

The museum also has a shop, where you can buy some of the fabrics woven in the museum.  It is a truly wonderful resource for anyone interested in textiles!

The last remaining mill in Labastide Rouairoux is called SARTISS, and today this factory produces woven fabrics from natural fibers for Les Toiles de la Montagne Noire.  You can see a little of the manufacturing process in this video (e-mail subscribers, please visit the site to watch the video):

The fabrics are made from cotton or a blend of linen and cotton, and not treated in any way.  They appear to be very firm and stiff, but will soften with use and last a very long time.  I have my eyes on some of the striped deck chair fabric, to give new life to an ancient deck chair which is lingering in my garden.

The factory also produces woolen blankets, with the wool from the Lacaune sheep, which are raised locally.

The visits to the museum and the factory shop of Les Toiles de la Montagne Noire were only part of the Fete du Fil – there was much more to be seen!!  Across the river from the museum was the Puces des Couturieres, the flea market of the seamstresses.  I didn’t have any expectations, but had I had any the event would have lived up to them :).  There were all kinds of goods on offer – I think you’ll get a good idea from the pictures:

I was very taken by the hand-woven carpets of La Main des Sables.  All the wool is dyed using plants and natural dye materials, and the carpets are woven in Morocco in the traditional fashion.  The colours are beautiful and the patterns are gorgeous, as you can see.

The village hall of Labastide hosted an exhibition of textile art, as well as several workshops on textile art and jewelery making.  There were demonstrations of lace-making, as well as an exhibition of a well-known brand of sewing machines, and there was Cafe Tricot, where you bring your knitting and join fellow knitters for a cup of coffee or tea :)!  Among the art on display were some fantastic pieces by Marie-Christine Hourdebaigt, using a variety of techniques to achieve incredible effects.

So, we’ve done the round of the whole of the Fete du Fil, and come to the end of our visit.  I do hope you enjoyed your day out!  If you are in the area on August 15 next year remember the fete will be on, and the rest of the year you can always visit the museum and take a walk around the town.  There is always something to discover!